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Malaria is caused by the several species of the Plasmodium parasite, which are obligate parasites, (16) —- they cannot survive outside another animal’s body. (17) —-, they survive and reproduce in humans and many other vertebrate animals and (18) —- by various mosquito species. In humans, malaria causes fevers, liver problems, breathing issues, and death. (19) —-, it leads to billions in economic impact in the areas in which it is present. These impacts include lost productivity and earning power of those afflicted or killed by malaria, the health investments needed to combat malaria, and tourism being (20) —- by a fear of malaria.
In a recent study, Shane Frank and his colleagues took a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to study how the mass die-off of 323 reindeers created a landscape of life and death for the animals attracted to graveyard. The unlucky reindeer herd was struck by lightning, instantly dying en masse. Immediately, foxes, wolverines, crows, ravens and rodents concentrated to the site to feast upon the unexpected banquet. However, there is a strict hierarchy for a place at the table. First choice goes to the larger scavengers such as foxes and ravens whilst the smaller animals must wait for their turn. Moreover, the most vulnerable animals such as voles and lemmings have to be careful that they in turn do not become dinner for the larger guests. It was only a full year after the fateful lightning strike that the rodents were able to approach the dinner table once the birds had left. This suggests that despite the great abundance of food available, smaller scavengers such as voles and lemmings lived in a landscape of fear, which prevented them from accessing vital nutrition whilst predators were most numerous.
Bees are expert pollinators, and the vast majority of the plants we eat rely on pollination. At least 30% of the world’s crops and 90% of all plants require some sort of cross pollination, which is what bees do best. Pollinators like bees play a key role in one out of every three bites of food we eat. Though they are not the only pollinators in the animal kingdom, bees are responsible for pollinating millions of agricultural crops each year accounting for about 84% of crops grown for human consumption. Their efforts lead to the production of many seeds, nuts, berries, and fruits that animals use as a food source. Honey is not just for humans either; animals like racoons, possums, and insects love to eat this delicious and nutritious snack. If we had no more bees, many plants that humans and wildlife use as food sources would die off, leaving our plates empty and animals in peril. However, due to reasons such as the changing climate, a loss of habitat and food sources, invasive species, and exposure to pesticides like neonicotinoids, bee populations are in decline across the globe.
New thinking about the world and better shipbuilding led to more exploration and the discovery of new lands during the 16th century. England wanted more land overseas where it could build new communities, known as colonies. These colonies would provide England with valuable materials, like metals, sugar and tobacco, which they could also sell to other countries. The colonies also offered money-making opportunities for wealthy Englishmen and provided England’s poor and unemployed with new places to live and new jobs. The first English colonies were in North America, at the time known as the “New World”. Over time, the English would claim more and more territories. Over the course of the 17th and 18th centuries, England gained major colonies in North America and further south in the West Indies. Here, the climate was perfect for growing crops like sugar and tobacco, so they set up farms known as plantations. Trading settlements were also created in India by a company called the East India Company. This company became so powerful that it allowed England to control the trade of luxury goods like spices, cotton, silk and tea from India and China, and it even influenced politics.
It must be made clear from the start that anyone who is interested in remembering their dreams, and understanding them, is free to do so. You are not required to possess any psychic abilities or prestigious degrees because interpreting dreams can be done by anyone willing to simply learn how. It is not very hard to do and does not require much of your free time nor is there any really intense study to do. The method I am about to outline for you is perhaps one of the easiest and effective ways to remember and analyse your own dreams. As you follow this outline you will grow more effective in time as practice increases your rate rather dramatically. There is nothing spooky or ritualistic to do; in fact, I believe you will find it quite logical. Just like learning to drive a car or tying your shoes hangs with you, this too will be something that you will be able to do quite naturally in time.
Artefacts, which include art, tools, and clothing made by people of any time and place, are immensely useful to scholars who want to learn about a culture. Many ancient cultures did not have a written language or did not actively record their history, so artefacts sometimes provide the only clues about how people lived. For instance, artefacts have provided essential clues about life in Ancient Egypt. Ancient Egyptians believed in an afterlife and buried the dead with things they would need in order to live on in the afterlife. As a result, the tombs of Ancient Egypt provide a wealth of artefacts that gives insight into the culture. The tomb of King Tut is perhaps the most famous one. It had been undisturbed since he was buried around 1323 BC. However, in 1922, British archaeologist Howard Carter excavated it. Murals on its wall told of King Tut’s funeral and journey to the afterworld. The tomb also included more than 5,000 artefacts, including perfumes and oils, jewellery, statues, and even toys from Tut’s childhood.
– What’s it that you have been laughing at?
– The story in the news. An old man goes to a recycling bin to dump old clothes and hears the cries of a cat inside, so he calls the local police to get it out.
– Well, the police confirms cat cries and calls the Fire Brigade. 90 min later, they come to break open the bin, and the “cat” turns out to be a toy, battery-powered one, with very convincing meows.
– Have you seen Mike lately? He’s got a lot of bruises and scratches on his body.
– You’re right. When I talked to him this morning, he said that he lost control of his bike and went off the road into a nearby field because the road was slippery.
– How terrible! He should have known better than to ride on such a rainy day.
– Have you heard the news that the two-island nation of Antigua and Barbuda in the Caribbean Sea is hoping people will come and live and work there for two years?
– Of course, I have. Its government is offering a two-year work visa for “digital nomads”, who can work anywhere in the world via their laptop computer. The nation’s new “Nomad Digital Residence Programme” is now available for anyone who wants to work in paradise.
– Well, applicants must have an income of at least $50,000 per year, and they must show that they can look after any family members on the programme for two years.
– According to a latest report I have read, around two-fifths of the world’s plants are at risk of extinction.
– That’s terrible news. We are living in an age of extinction, and it’s a very worrying picture of risk and urgent need for action.
– I couldn’t agree more. We would not be able to survive without plants – all life depends on them.
– Definitely. —-
– How weird! Magawa has been given a distinguished award of bravery for his services to humanity.
– What is the weird side of this? —-
– You could have been right if Magawa were anybody. He is a rat awarded a gold medal for his seven years of duty sniffing out dozens of landmines in Cambodia.
– Oh my god. He is a rat? How could I have imagined that?
(I) Scientists have long been warning about the dangers of climate change and the loss of species on ecosystems. (II) As a matter of fact we know that either one can be disastrous for ecosystems on its own. (III) However, less is known about what can happen when both occur together. (IV) All of these combined effects mean serious damage for the reefs and the kelp forests they support. (V) Given the complicated interactions that occur between plants, animals, and the physical environment, there is the potential that the combined effects of climate change and species loss can be much worse than the sum of its parts.
(I) Though we know of the existence of microplastics, much has yet to be investigated to assess the extent of harm these little particles do. (II) While lab studies on the effects of microplastics on human cells and tissues are promising, they do not show the long-term impact on actual humans. (III) Most of the attention on microplastics is on the ocean, where it forms a “plastic soup” of seawater, organisms, and plastic. (IV) However, microplastics are just as persistent in the soil and can be toxic to the plants we grow. (V) Microplastics are used as ingredients in cigarette filters, textile fibres, and cleaning or personal care products.
(I) Many of today’s Christian traditions came from the Anglo-Saxons, but they were not always Christians. (II) When they first came over from Europe, they were Pagans, worshipping lots of different gods who they believed looked different parts of their life, such as family, crop growing, weather and even war. (III) It wasn’t until the Pope in Rome sent over a missionary – a monk called Augustine – to England in 597 AD that the Anglo-Saxons became Christians. (IV) The Anglo-Saxons would pray to the Pagan gods to give them good health, a plentiful harvest or success in battle. (V) Pagan temples were turned into churches, and more churches started popping up all over Britain.
(I) During the era of slavery, the Underground Railroad was a network of routes, places, and people that helped enslaved people in the American South escape to the North. (II) The name “Underground Railroad” was used metaphorically, not literally. (III) While the London Underground is by far the largest and most famous underground railway in the UK, it is not the only one. (IV) In other words, it was not an actual railroad, but it served the same purpose – it transported people long distances. (V) It also did not run underground, but through homes, barns, churches, and businesses.
(I) A sarcophagus is a stone coffin or a container to hold a coffin. (II) Ancient Egyptians believed in an afterlife, and the sarcophagus was to be the eternal dwelling place of those within it. (III) The coffin would then be placed within the sarcophagus. (IV) The earliest sarcophagi were designed for the pharaohs of Egypt and reflected the architecture of their palaces. (V) They were elaborately decorated with carvings and paintings.
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